Brett King

Posts Tagged ‘Wallet’

What’s your banking instinct?

In Customer Experience, Future of Banking, Strategy on November 18, 2011 at 12:43

Without thinking consciously about it, over time core behaviors change producing different instinctive reactions. When a phone rings today, we go to our pocket or purse, not running to a device on a desk or on the wall. When we are interacting with a mobile phone that is not our own or an ATM machine, we’ll instinctively touch the screen to navigate, even if it is not a touch screen device. When you go from reading on a Kindle or iPad to a real book, the pages are frustratingly manual to turn. When we need to take a photo with friends, increasingly we reach for our phone, even if we have a camera stuck somewhere in our bag.

What was our instinct in banking?

The earliest instincts around banking was a safe place to store your assets, and in many ways that is still the case. However, banking in its infancy didn’t necessarily involve a bank or money at all. The earliest forms of banking involved the deposit of commodities or valuables that were traded, and often they were deposited in temples or palaces, the safest physical locations. It wasn’t until the 16th and 17th centuries that organized banking started to emerge globally, particularly as the wealthy tried to keep their assets safe during the dark ages. Even then, banking was still exclusive. It really wasn’t until the 20th century that banking became more mainstream and people started considering storing their savings in a bank.

Since then banking has been an instinctive part of the lives of most people in the developed world.

It wasn’t long before it became instinctive to pull out our cheque book to pay for a large ticket item. Some would also use lay-away or lay-buy plans, but these largely disappeared over the last decade or so. Over time those instincts changed to use credit cards, and more recently debit cards at the point of sale.

In the past our instinct when we needed cash was to think about where the nearest branch was and figure out when we would need to go to withdraw cash. Over time that instinct changed to using an ATM machine, and we went from planning when we’d withdraw cash, to just picking the nearest ATM machine when the cash in our wallet was getting low.

In the past our instinct when paying a bill was to write a cheque and send it in the mail, or to go down to a post office or office of the utility company and pay the bill in person. Today, that instinct has changed to where we pay online in an instant.

It’s ironic that we think of banking as a slow and steady institution that doesn’t really change, but in reality the utility of our money means that our behavior in respect to banking has always been changing.

The future instincts of banking

So what will your instincts for banking be in the next decade?

Not a place you go, something you do…

Firstly, we won’t instinctively think of banking as a place you go. The concept that a branch is at the centre of our banking relationship has been central to retail banking for over 800 years. This is the primary instinctual shift that will occur in the next few years.

Instead of looking for a place to store your money, we’ll look for a trusted brand that is safe to store our money, but equally important will be a brand that offers strong utility and a seamless connection to the things we do with our money. A safe and trusted banking partner will be a bank that offers me access to my money and access to financial services when and where I need them. A bank that demands or prefers a physical interaction, will increasingly be avoided instinctively as too hard to work with, as irrelevant to my daily life, and as slow and unwieldy.

On rare occasions for the minority of us that have complex asset allocations, trust structures and so forth, we’ll look for a physical place to go where we aspire to get the high-touch service of a personal banker who recognizes our status as a special class of banking customer – but this will not be an overriding instinct day-to-day, it will be incidental to our general banking experience. The majority of the time, even for the high-net worth client, instinct will simply dictate a much more efficient engagement of the ‘bank’.

Move and Pay, Safely and Efficiently

When it comes to day-to-day interactions, the emphasis on the movement of our money will be speed and security. Inevitably in the short-term our instinct will be to pull out our phone at the point-of-sale to pay for goods and services. We’ll do this not only because it is much faster than using cash or a card, but because our money management will be articulated through this personal device – we’ll see our balance, what our monthly expenditure is, what upcoming expenses we have and be able to understand the context of this payment on our financial life in an instant. The same would have taken much more effort with cash, our cheque book or our card.

Your instinct for payments is changing again

Security of our cash will be also a primary reason for the shift to digital money. Increasingly we’ll look to the technology of encryption, geo-location tagging, biometrics and active identity management to secure the flow of our funds. We won’t trust a piece of plastic or a piece of paper that can be easily corrupted or stolen, and the technology of ‘hacking’ our cash from a secure device will require a level of expertise and high-performance computing that make it far less frequent than the compromise of traditional physical ‘payment’ artifacts.

At the point that it is simply no longer safe to do things with cash and plastic, our instincts will quickly change to keep our finances safe once again. Being able to see what has been happening with our money over time, will also drive us to increasing digital management of our money.

Core instincts are at the heart of the change in bank modality

First and foremost our instinct for banking is keeping our money safe, secondly is the need for the utility of our money. Neither of these core instincts will lend us to continue to support the physical elements of banking and payments that we’ve been used to in the last 100 years. We will measure ‘safety’ in the trust of a brand, not in the bricks and mortar of branches. We will measure ‘utility’ in the seamless access to our cash, and the availability of the bank in our life when and where we need it.

Our instincts are rapidly changing. We don’t store grain and gold in Temples or Palaces anymore. Already most of the world doesn’t use cheques anymore. If you’re heavily invested in branches and the physical, you don’t understand the core instinct that banking is.

When your Telco becomes a Bank

In Customer Experience, Economics, Future of Banking, Mobile Banking, Mobile Payments on September 8, 2011 at 16:46

The announcement that the Canadian carrier Rogers Telecom has applied for a banking license should hardly come as a shock to the retail banking fraternity. There is already a plethera of mobile carriers fully engaged in mobile payments right now, from Safaricom in Kenya, Orange (with Barclays) in the UK, the ISIS collaboration in the US, LG Telecom in South Korea, and the list goes on. Everywhere you look right now, there are carriers trying to muscle in on the mobile wallet and payments space.

Should Banks be Worried?

They should be terrified.

The fact is that it makes perfect sense for mobile operators to start thinking about offering banking products and services as we dispense with plastic and start using our mobile phones as payment devices. Increasingly, banks are being detached from the end consumer by a technology layer. Let me prove it.

PayPal reinvented the customer experience layer around payments, and in doing so set the benchmark by which Peer-to-Peer payments are made. Sure there are banks at the back-end of PayPal, but today I can take out my phone or get online and send you money and all I need to know is your email address or your mobile phone number. This is compared with the average wire transfer which requires account number, account name, bank name, bank address, SWIFT Code/ABA Routing Number or IBAN, etc, etc. Now we’re all wondering why it’s simpler, and in many cases cheaper, to use PayPal than a wire transfer through our traditional bank. Why go back to complexity and friction?

Today, if a bank wants to allow their customers access to Mobile Banking they have to go through a layer of technology called an App Store (or Marketplace). Sure, there is HTML5 and mini-browser mobile sites, but the fact is that if you want best-in-class interaction and engagement, you need to go App. So today, a bank must ask Google, Apple or RIM for permission to have clients access their bank via a smartphone.

Mobile Carriers are a significant threat to day-to-day banking

Are Telcos a Threat to the High Street Bank?

Well, yes and no.

If you look at broader offerings of financial service products, then mobile operators really don’t want to play in that arena. What most of the mobile operators are looking to do is play in the payments space, taking control of the wallet on your phone or offering pre-paid debit card type services.

In 2008 about 17% of the US mobile subscriber base were on prepaid deals, but since the GFC (Global Financial Crisis) approximately 65% of net new subscribers are prepaid users. In emerging markets like India and China 90%+ of the subscriber base is prepaid, and the same counts for sub-Saharan Africa, and broadly across Eastern Europe and Asia. So what does this have to do with banking?

Prepaid subscribers for mobile phones generally speaking are more likely to be at the lower end of the scale for retail banking (less profitable, underbanked) or even in the unbanked segments. These are customers who don’t have extensive multi-bank relationships, and who increasingly are moving to products like prepaid debit cards to facilitate their day-to-day banking needs.

So guess what happens when you combine a prepaid debit card with a prepaid mobile phone? It’s a marriage made in heaven! What’s the difference between making a telephone call, an ATM withdrawal or a debit card transaction at a merchant – they are all just transactions from a value store.

It’s likely that as Telcos figure this ‘secret’ out that they will be aggressively going after that marginal layer of customers that are underbanked, and promising utility that a bank can’t provide in the payments space. The combination of prepaid phone deal with a prepaid debit card will likely result in the loss of around 10% of the retail banking consumer market in developed economies in the next 5 years in my opinion, as they migrate to this type of modality.

So What? We can Afford to Lose a Few Marginal Customers!

This will be the justification for lack of action from many retail banks; that the loss of these less profitable customers is not a bad thing. There’s two problems with that logic.

Firstly, this shift will create momentum behind changing payments behavior that will fragment day-to-day banking for many customers. Increasingly even your best, most profitable customers will be abandoning the old ways of payments to go for the utility of a combined mobile phone and payment device. Once I am managing your day-to-day spending activity, I can start to influence your decisions, spending and choices for more complex financial products too.

Secondly, the fact is that even these ‘marginal customers will likely be extremely profitable for Telcos, because to them it is just new revenue, and they don’t have all the expensive infrastructure that banks have around the very traditional (some would say antiquated) retail banking system.

The implications for banks is that they lose touch day-to-day with customers, and the day-to-day retail front-end of banking becomes owned by telcos, App stores, social networks and marketing organizations. The bank becomes the back-end manager of risk and the product manufacturer, with the lowest margin of the whole value chain.

Visa draws its lines in the battle for the wallet…

In Customer Experience, Mobile Payments on June 10, 2011 at 07:25

The announcement today of Visa’s acquisition of Fundamo signals the drawing of the battle lines in the face off between Mastercard and Visa in the mobile payments stakes. While I understand that a wallet is much more than just an NFC enabler, the announcement of Google’s NFC trial around their ‘wallet’ last month put some pressure on Visa to make a strong competitive statement against the Android positioning. But what does this mean for the mobile payments landscape?

There’s only room for a few wallet standards

While everyone would like to ‘own’ mobile payments and the mythical m-wallet, the fact is that the recent failure of ISIS to successfully launch a competing payments backbone means that in all likelihood the current card issuer networks will remain at the core of the mobile payments infrastructure for the time being.  This gives Visa and Mastercard a fairly significant advantage in owning the plug-in or API that enables access to the backbone. The wallet effectively acts as that plug-in functionality.

The challenge that Visa and Mastercard have at this point is not technology, but getting partner banks enthused enough to start aggressively rolling out solutions around mobile payments with their proprietary “wallets” plugged-in. The problem is that today you can count on just two hands the total number of banks globally who’ve enabled broader P2P payments as part of their mobile App strategy – such as Chase, Hana, ING Direct and ANZ – and that is an appalling legacy mindset hurdle to get over.

The fact that banks have been so slow to embrace mobile P2P enablement does not bode well for broader bank-led adoption of the mobile wallet. It means that Fundamo and Visa will have to rely on consumer take-up, or integration at the handset level for broader adoption. In this respect, the Google Wallet still probably has an advantage here, but if Visa gets a deal with MSFT/NOKIA or with APPL then all bets are off.

The other opportunity and challenge here is the pre-paid debit card market. With some 50 million+ underbanked in the US alone, with the increasingly strong debit card market in the EU and with China and India ramping up rapidly in respect to smartphone adoption, perhaps the greatest opportunity to be tapped will be integrating pre-paid mobile accounts and pre-paid debit cards in the same handset. It makes sense doesn’t it? What’s the difference between a pre-paid debit card enabled via a mobile wallet, and a pre-paid phone account? They are both value stores…

In that environment, Visa could do with some independence from the issuing banks – perhaps issuing their own pre-paid debit cards as part of the wallet proposition. Given their relationship with the banking community, however, I don’t expect a rapid independent solution to this problem.

The good news is, that Fundamo already has a strong financial inclusion play, so my view is that overall this move is going to be very positive, especially in emerging markets.

Visa's acquisition of Fundamo is a smart move in the battle for the Mobile Wallet

Circumventing the backbone might still be possible

The dark horse here could still be Apple, leading with a P2P solution that circumvents the traditional networks. Apple has just taken a shot across the bow at Telcos with their iMessage component of iOS 5, which circumvents traditional short-message-system networks, so they’ve shown their willingness to use their broadly adopted platform to challenge services that are redundant in the cloud world. In the world of payments, you only need large-scale adoption of IP-enabled handsets to start challenging this space and creating a new service framework. ISIS couldn’t do this because they didn’t have a way to get their service ubiquitous. Apple already has 250 million cardholders plugged-in to iTunes, so they have massive momentum already.  Could they turn that into a P2P backbone?

Sure. Apple will still need to plug in at the back-end in someway, but a cloud-based competitive backbone to the traditional payment networks would be even more pressure on the current interchange environment.

Long-shot? Maybe, but it won’t be long before the pressure on interchange fees, modality of payments around mobile wallets and the changing role of the POS (mobile becomes the POS ala Square and NFC) makes cloud-based alternatives viable. Certainly within the next 5 years this is likely to happen.

It’s still about context

While owning a wallet that has a rapid path to NFC and P2P enablement is a great start, I still believe the real trick with mobile payments is around the context of a payment. The big difference between mag-stripe/Chip and PIN interaction and that of a mobile NFC payment is that I can contextualize the interaction before, during and after the payment. That might be as simple as updating your account balance in real-time, or it might be about integrating offers and loyalty into the payment experience. Square is obviously counting on that as a driver for cardcase.

The challenge Visa faces right now is building context. The wallet is just a plug-in for payments. Where Google (Offers), Apple (iAd), Groupon, Foursquare and others are threatening is the context of those payments.

That’s where I can influence a payment based on location or a trigger.

That’s where I can steal you away using a competitor’s wallet.

That’s where I can circumvent a traditional payment interaction and avoid using the traditional POS all together.

That’s where I OWN the customer.

Visa has made a great start with their acquisition of some very solid tech in the form of Fundamo, but they’re not there yet. My greatest concern is they’ll wait for banks to add the context, and banks are even slower at doing this stuff than visa is…